The Hybrid Closed-Loop System: Evolution and Practical Applications

This paper validates some of my experiences using this insulin pump over the last 16 months.

Achievement of well-controlled blood glucose is essential for preventing complications in patients with type 1 diabetes. Since the inception of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, the aim has been to develop an artificial pancreas, with the ability to use an automated algorithm to deliver one or more hormones in response to blood glucose with the intent to keep blood sugar as close to a prespecified target as possible. Development and rapid improvement of continuous glucose sensor technology has recently allowed swift progress toward a fully closed-loop insulin delivery system. In 2017, Medtronic began marketing the 670G insulin pump with Guardian 3 sensor. When in auto mode, this is a hybrid closed-loop insulin delivery system that automatically adjusts basal insulin delivery every 5?min based on sensor glucose to maintain blood glucose levels as close to a specific target as possible. Patients receive prandial insulin by entering carbohydrate amount into the bolus calculator. Early studies show improvement in HbA1c in both adults and adolescents with this technology. Initial safety trials showed no occurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis or hypoglycemia. The utility of this device is limited by blood glucose targets of 120 and 150?mg/dL that are unacceptably high for some patients. Notwithstanding recent advances, we are far from a system that is able to replicate islet function in the form of a fully automated, multihormonal blood glucose control device.The Hybrid Closed-Loop System

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